Quantitative data is the data that takes some number to measure its value is known as quantitative data. As the name suggests quantitative data means the data which involve numbers. This quantifiable information is analyzed by using mathematical calculations and statistical analysis to make decisions. Quantitative data analysis includes the calculation of data entry frequencies and differences between the variables. Quantitative data analysis also includes the measurement of central tendencies of the data, standard deviations, regressions, correlations, and further different tests, like Z-test and T-test, are applied to analyze the hypothesis Quantitative data answers the questions like “how much?”, “How often?”, and “how many?” Quantitative data can be verified using mathematical techniques.
Quantitative Research Process
1. Identification of the research problem
The process of research starts from right after the identification of a research problem. Quantitative research studies are narrow in scope and focus on a limited number of variables.
2. Statement of the problem or hypothesis
After the identification of a research problem, a researcher is required to set clear research questions and hypothesis in clear words. Research questions and hypothesis give a guideline to the whole remainder research. Failure to set clear research questions and hypothesis leads to misalignment between the research questions and the data collected.
3. Review of Related Literature
Before going to devise a research method for the study a researcher must go through the relevant literature to know the already existing body of knowledge. By reviewing others’ work in the field make a researcher able to make informed decisions.
4. Developing a research methodology
After taking guidelines from the literature review a researcher devises a complete research plan. This plan clearly mentions the population of research study, sampling techniques, number of samples and appropriate research design. Research methodology also includes the methods of data analysis. Usually, quantitative data analysis is done by applying certain statistical methods.
5. Data collection
Quantitative data collection usually takes less time as compared to qualitative data collection. The advancement in technology made it possible to gather data from a highly diverse population within no time.
6. Data analysis
The quantitative data is analyzed by applying statistical methods, which focus on the central tendency of the data, numerical descriptions, comparison of quantities and relationship between the variables.
7. Conclusion and recommendations
Conclusions are drawn from the statistical results of the quantitative data analysis. Conclusions further give insight into future research.
Types of Quantitative data collection methods
Quantitative data can be collected by two commonly known methods:
2. One-on-one interviews
Surveys are commonly used as quantitative data collection methods. Surveys used to collect data from a large number of respondents. With the advancement of technology, the paper-based surveys are replaced by online surveys either in the form of phone calls, text messages, and emails, etc. The online surveys made it possible for the researchers to collect data from a very large and dispersed population. These surveys include close-ended questions that result in quantitative data collection. One the basis of time to complete a survey, there are two types of surveys, longitudinal surveys, and cross-sectional surveys. Longitudinal surveys are conducted to collect the data from a specific time period to another, for a considerable course of time. Longitudinal surveys are used by the market researchers to analyze the trends towards a particular event or phenomenon. Cross-sectional surveys are conducted at a particular time period across the target respondents. Cross-sectional surveys help to understand the subjects for a definite time period.
2. One-on-one interviews
Interviews are categorized as traditional methods of data collection among the other quantitative data collection methods. Quantitative interviews use close-ended and highly structured questionnaires. There are three major types of interviews:
1. Face-to-face interviews
2. Online/telephonic interviews
3. Computer-assisted personal interview